Should The Government Hold Secrets?

The Secret White House Bush II removed more than 6,000 documents from government websites, including a document on the Environment Protection Agency website that gave citizens crucial information on how to identify chemical hazards near where their families live.1 In 2003, he adopted a new policy to the Freedom of Information Act that actively encourages Read more about Should The Government Hold Secrets?[…]

When Is Humanitarian Intervention Allowed?

Table of Contents Can States Intervene? The Genocide Convention & It’s Importance So, What’s Ethnic Cleansing? Does An Aggressor Need To Exterminate the Entire Group? Is Systematic Rape A Form Of Genocide? Imagine Being In A Country Where Genocide Is Happening Why Should The Lives Of Our Citizens Be Sacrificed For Strangers? What About Laissez-Faire? Read more about When Is Humanitarian Intervention Allowed?[…]

19 Reasons Why Eye-Witness Testimony Is Wrong

Sixty-three percent of respondents to a study agreed that human memory works like a video camera. Thirty-seven percent agreed that the testimony of one confident eyewitness should be enough evidence to convict someone of a crime. And, 48% agreed that once you have experienced an event and formed a memory of it, that memory doesn’t Read more about 19 Reasons Why Eye-Witness Testimony Is Wrong[…]

How Did Japan Rise to One of The Top Nations?

  In the late 16th century, China was run by a bureaucracy and Japan by feudalism. The Japanese emperor put up tariffs. This ensured Japan’s inability to learn and adopt new technologies and industrial developments that were occurring elsewhere. However, in 1868, the Japanese Emperor Meiji took an Oath: Japan’s Charter Oath By this oath, Read more about How Did Japan Rise to One of The Top Nations?[…]

What Was The Iran-Contra Affair?

The Iran-Contra Affair was a series of deals between 1985 and 1987. They were made by Reagan and his administration with Iranian kidnappers —this almost destroyed his presidency. The deal was an exchange of arms for American hostages. Here’s what happened: The administration got Israel, our ally, to send America missiles to Iran. The first Read more about What Was The Iran-Contra Affair?[…]

What Was ‘The Terror” of the French Revolution?

Here’s what “The Terror” of the French Revolution consisted of: Conscripting every adult male in France. Announcing that France “will accord fraternity and assistance to all peoples who…wish to recover their liberty.” The National Assembly even had the document “translated and printed in all languages.” In 1792, France pledged support to suppress “all the civil Read more about What Was ‘The Terror” of the French Revolution?[…]

Are Americans Richers Than They Were In 1984?

To answer this question, let’s look at some economic indicators. Median Income Looking at real median household income, as shown below, we see that household income has indeed increased from $48,720 in 1984 to $56,516 in 2015. This is an increase of $7,796 —or a change of 16%. If we were to only look at Read more about Are Americans Richers Than They Were In 1984?[…]

Why Did The Ottoman Empire Fall?

In 1453, the Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. By the 16th century, the Empire ruled southeastern Europe, the Balkans and parts of the Middle East.1 It needed remarkable leadership to maintain these already overextended territories while fending off the Shia branch, who, based in Iraq and then in Persia, challenged Read more about Why Did The Ottoman Empire Fall?[…]

What’s “The Peace of Westphalia”?

The Peace of Westphalia was signed in 1648. Though no single treaty exists to embody its terms, the peace is the sum of three separate and complementary agreements. Its core principles are national independence, sovereign statehood, national interest, non-interference, secularism and diplomatic immunity. Let’s take a look.  Sovereignty The idea of imperial or religious unity Read more about What’s “The Peace of Westphalia”?[…]